@Traxz you should be able to move that phone modem to another location that has an active cable outlet available. Only question is whether or not there is a RJ-11 phone outlet plug available so that you can connect the phone modem to the house phone system thru that RJ-11 outlet, if that is what you're trying to achieve.
Although sometimes you can move the modem to any RF-coax outlet that then has an RJ11 (phone) jack nearby for phone distribution (if you have more than one phone or phone base connected), Rogers prefers to have the home phone split as the first split on the line coming to the home, with TV lines being the second split. If you move the modem and it doesn't work, then the reason is that the signal is not good enough and may require a re-wire or moving it back to where it was.
having a filter installed in the outside cable terminal should not impact you at all, since those are designed for cable tv signals and they have been phased out, Considering you have a cable home phone modem and possibly a filter outside already and its working means its nothing to worry about.
Like others have said, the other cable outlets in the house may very well be "active" but that does not necessarily mean it will work fine with your home phone modem. As others mentioned, the way the splitters are hooked up near the service cable entrance is what matters the most. some cable lines have more signal than others and are designed this way for cable and modems, telephony modem terminals, etc. so unless you are knowledgeable in re-wiring the new outlet you want to use with the same cable splitter configuration, i highly advise against it as you could be causing more trouble down the road.
another thing people mentioned is always ensure there is a RJ1 telephone jack near the new cable outlet location as you need this to backfeed the dialtone into your existing ISW (In Side Wiring), but if you use a cordless handset and dont care abotu backfeeding it into the ISW then by all means use a coax outlet with no RJ11 near by. if you are unsure, than that means you should call rogers to move the modem for you, even if its at a cost, its well worth it cus you probably do not know how to do it and your paying an expert to do it right for you.